USCIS EB5 Memorandum
PURPOSE: The purpose of this policy memorandum (PM) is to build upon prior policy guidance for adjudicating EB-5 applications and petitions. Prior policy guidance, to the extent it does not conflict with this PM, remains valid unless and until rescinded. SCOPE: This PM is applicable to, and is binding on, all USCIS employees.
- Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) sections 203(b)(5) and 216A
- Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
- Appropriation Act, Pub. L. No. 102-395, § 610, 106 Stat 1828, 1874 (1992)
- 8 C.F.R. §§ 204.6 and 216.6
The purpose of the EB-5 Program is to promote the immigration of people who can help create jobs for U.S. workers through their investment of capital into the U.S. economy. Congress established the EB-5 Program in 1990 to bring new investment capital into the country and to create new jobs for U.S. workers. The EB-5 Program is based on our nation’s interest in promoting the immigration of people who invest their capital in new, restructured, or expanded businesses and projects in the United States and help create or preserve needed jobs for U.S. workers by doing so. In the EB-5 Program, immigrants who invest their capital in job-creating businesses and projects in the United States receive conditional permanent resident status in the United States for a twoyear period. After two years, if the immigrants have satisfied the conditions of the EB-5 Program and other criteria of eligibility, the conditions are removed and the immigrants become unconditional lawful permanent residents of the United States. Congress created the two-year conditional status period to help ensure compliance with the statutory and regulatory requirements and to ensure that the infusion of investment capital is sustained and the U.S. jobs are created. The 1990 legislation that created the EB-5 Program envisioned lawful permanent resident status for immigrant investors who invest in and engage in the management of job-creating commercial enterprises. In 1993, the legislature enacted the “Immigrant Investor Pilot Program” that was designed to encourage immigrant investment in a range of business and economic development opportunities within designated regional centers. In 2012 Congress reaffirmed its commitment to the regional center model of investment and job creation by removing the word “Pilot” from the now twenty-year old program, and by providing a three-year reauthorization of the regional center model through September 2015. Our goal at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is to make sure that the potential of the EB-5 Program, including the Immigrant Investor Program, is fully realized, and that the integrity of the EB-5 Program is protected. Through our thoughtful and careful adjudication of applications and petitions in the EB-5 Program, we can realize the intent of Congress to promote the immigration of people who invest capital into our nation’s economy and help create jobs for U.S. workers.II. The Preponderance of the Evidence Standard
As a preliminary matter, it is critical that our adjudication of EB-5 petitions and applications adhere to the correct standard of proof. In the EB-5 program, the petitioner or applicant must establish each element by a preponderance of the evidence. See Matter of Chawathe, 25 I&N Dec. 369, 375-376 (AAO 2010). That means that the petitioner or applicant must show that what he or she claims is more likely so than not so. This is a lower standard of proof than both the standard of “clear and convincing,” and the standard “beyond a reasonable doubt” that typically applies to criminal cases. The petitioner or applicant does not need to remove all doubt from our adjudication. Even if an adjudicator has some doubt as to the truth, if the petitioner or applicant submits relevant, probative, and credible evidence that leads to the conclusion that the claim is “more likely than not” or “probably true”, the petitioner or applicant has satisfied the standard of proof.III. Ensuring Program Integrity
It is critical to our mission to ensure that we administer the EB-5 program with utmost vigilance to program integrity. Our operational teams work in collaboration with the Fraud Detection and National Security directorate and cases presenting issues relating to fraud, national security, or public safety should be referred as appropriate to law enforcement and regulatory authorities. IV. The Three Elements of the EB-5 Program The EB-5 Program is based on three main elements:
- (1) the immigrant’s investment of capital,
- (2) in a new commercial enterprise,
- (3) that creates jobs. Each of these elements is explained below in the context of both the original EB-5 Program and the Immigrant Investor Program.
The EB-5 Program is based in part on the fact that the United States economy will benefit from an immigrant’s contribution of capital. It is also based on the view that the benefit to the U.S. economy is greatest when capital is placed at risk and invested into a new commercial enterprise that, as a result of the investment, creates at least ten jobs for U.S. workers. The regulations that govern the EB-5 Program define the terms “capital” and “investment” with this in mind.1. “Capital” Defined
The word “capital” in the EB-5 Program does not mean only cash. Instead, the word “capital” is defined broadly in the regulations to take into account the many different ways in which an individual can make a contribution of financial value to a business. The regulation defines “capital” as follows: Capital means cash, equipment, inventory, other tangible property, cash equivalents, and indebtedness secured by assets owned by the alien entrepreneur [immigrant investor], provided that the alien entrepreneur [immigrant investor] is personally and primarily liable and that the assets of the new commercial enterprise upon which the petition is based are not used to secure any of the indebtedness. All capital shall be valued at fair market value in United States dollars. Assets acquired, directly or indirectly, by unlawful means (such as criminal activities) shall not be considered capital for the purposes of section 203(b)(5) of the Act. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e).
The definition of “capital” has been clarified in regulations and in precedent decisions that our Administrative Appeals Office (AAO) has issued:
First, the definition of “capital” is sufficiently broad that it includes not only such things of value as cash, equipment, and other tangible property, but it can also include the immigrant investor’s promise to pay (a promissory note), as long as the promise is secured by assets the immigrant investor owns, the immigrant investor is liable for the debt, and the assets of the immigrant investor do not for this purpose include assets of the company in which the immigrant is investing.
In our AAO’s precedent decision Matter of Hsiung, 22 I&N Dec. 201, 204 (Assoc. Comm’r 1998), we reflected the fact that the immigrant investor’s promissory note can constitute “capital” under the regulations if the note is secured by assets the petitioner owns. We also determined that:
- (1) The assets must be specifically identified as securing the promissory note;
- (2) Any security interest must be perfected to the extent provided for by the jurisdiction in which the asset is located; and,
- (3) The asset must be fully amenable to seizure by a U.S. note holder.
Second, all of the capital must be valued at fair market value in United States dollars. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e) (definition of “capital”). The fair market value of a promissory note depends on its present value, not the value at any different time. Matter of Izummi, 22 I&N Dec. 169, 186 (Assoc. Comm’r 1998). Moreover, to qualify as capital for EB-5 purposes, “nearly all of the money due under a promissory note must be payable within two years, without provisions for extensions.” Id. at 194.
Third, the immigrant investor must establish that he or she is the legal owner of the capital invested. Matter of Ho, 22 I&N Dec. 206 (Assoc. Comm’r 1998).
Fourth, any assets acquired directly or indirectly by unlawful means, such as criminal activity, will not be considered capital. The immigrant investor must demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the capital was obtained through lawful means. According to the regulation, to make this showing the immigrant investor’s petition must be accompanied, as applicable, by:
- (1) Foreign business registration records; or,
- (2) Corporate, partnership (or any other entity in any form which has filed in any country or subdivision thereof any return described in this list), and personal tax returns including income, franchise, property (whether real, personal, or intangible), or any other tax returns of any kind filed within five years, with any taxing jurisdiction in or outside the United States by or on behalf of the immigrant investor; or,
- (3) Evidence identifying any other source(s) of capital; or,
- (4) Certified copies of any judgments or evidence of all pending governmental civil or criminal actions, governmental administrative proceedings, and any private civil actions (pending or otherwise) involving monetary judgments against the immigrant investor from any court in or outside the United States within the past fifteen years. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(3)(i)-(iv).
The immigrant investor in the EB-5 Program is required to invest his or her capital. The petitioner must document the path of the funds in order to establish that the investment was his or her own funds. Matter of Izummi, 22 I&N Dec. at 195. The regulation defines “invest” as follows:
Invest means to contribute capital. A contribution of capital in exchange for a note, bond, convertible debt, obligation, or any other debt arrangement between the alien entrepreneur [immigrant investor] and the new commercial enterprise does not constitute a contribution of capital . . . . 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e). The regulation also provides that, in order to qualify as an investment in the EB-5 Program, the immigrant investor must actually place his or her capital “at risk” for the purpose of generating a return, and that the mere intent to invest is not sufficient. The regulation provides as follows: To show that the petitioner has invested or is actively in the process of investing the required amount of capital, the petition must be accompanied by evidence that the petitioner has placed the required amount of capital at risk for the purpose of generating a return on the capital placed at risk. Evidence of mere intent to invest, or of prospective investment arrangements entailing no present commitment, will not suffice to show that the petition is actively in the process of investing. The alien must show actual commitment of the required amount of capital. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(2). The EB-5 Program is seeking to attract individuals from other countries who are willing to put their capital at risk in the United States, with the hope of a return on their investment, to help create U.S. jobs. The law does not specify what the degree of risk must be; the entire amount of capital need only be at risk to some degree. If the immigrant investor is guaranteed the return of a portion of his or her investment, or is guaranteed a rate of return on a portion of his or her investment, then that portion of the capital is not at risk. Matter of Izummi, 22 I&N Dec. at 180-188. For the capital to be “at risk” there must be a risk of loss and a chance for gain. In our precedent decision Matter of Izummi, 22 I&N Dec. at 183-188, the AAO found that the capital was not at risk because the investment was governed by a redemption agreement that protected against the risk of loss of the capital and, therefore, constituted an impermissible debt arrangement under 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e) as it was no different from the risk any business creditor incurs. Id. at 185. Furthermore, a promise to return any portion of the immigrant investor’s minimum required capital negates the required element of risk. Thus, if the agreement between the new commercial enterprise and immigrant investor, such as a limited partnership agreement or operating agreement, provides that the investor may demand return of or redeem some portion of capital after obtaining conditional lawful permanent resident status (i.e., following approval of the investor’s Form I-526 and subsequent visa issuance or, in the case of adjustment, approval of the investor’s Form I-485), that portion of capital is not at risk. Similarly, if the investor is individually guaranteed the right to eventual ownership or use of a particular asset in consideration of the investor’s contribution of capital into the new commercial enterprise, such as a home (or other real estate interest) or item of personal property, the expected present value of the guaranteed ownership or use of such asset does not count toward the total amount of the investor’s capital contribution in determining how much money was truly placed at risk. Cf. Izummi at 184 (concluding that an investment cannot be considered a qualifying contribution of capital at risk to the extent of a guaranteed return). Nothing, however, precludes an investor from receiving a return on his or her capital (i.e., a distribution of profits) during or after the conditional residency period, so long as prior to or during the two-year conditional residency period, and before the requisite jobs have been created, the return is not a portion of the investor’s principal investment and was not guaranteed to the investor. An investor’s money may be held in escrow until the investor has obtained conditional lawful permanent resident status if the immediate and irrevocable release of the escrowed funds is contingent only upon approval of the investor’s Form I-526 and subsequent visa issuance and admission to the United States as a conditional permanent resident or, in the case of adjustment of status, approval of the investor’s Form I-485. An investor’s funds may be held in escrow within the United States to avoid any evidentiary issues that may arise with respect to issues such as significant currency fluctuations1 and foreign capital export restrictions. Use of foreign escrow accounts however is not prohibited as long as the petition establishes that it is more likely than not that the minimum qualifying capital investment will be transferred to the new commercial enterprise in the United States upon the investor obtaining conditional lawful permanent resident status. At the Form I-829 stage, USCIS will require evidence verifying that the escrowed funds were released and that the investment was sustained in the new commercial enterprise.3. The Amount of Capital That Must Be Invested
The statute governing the EB-5 Program provides that the immigrant investor must invest at least $1,050,000 in capital in a new commercial enterprise that creates not fewer than ten jobs. As discussed above, this means that the present fair market value, in United States dollars, of the immigrant investor’s lawfully-derived capital must be at least $1,050,000. 8 U.S.C. § 1153(b)(5)(C)(i). An exception exists if the immigrant investor invests his or her capital in a new commercial enterprise that is principally doing business in, and creates jobs in, a “targeted employment area.” In such a case, the immigrant investor must invest a minimum of $800,000 in capital. 8 U.S.C. § 1153(b)(5)(C)(ii); 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(f)(2). See Section 3.a below for the definition of where the new commercial enterprise is “principally doing business.” An immigrant investor may diversify his or her total EB-5 investment across a portfolio of businesses or projects, so long as the minimum investment amount is placed in a single commercial enterprise. For immigrant investors who are not associated with a regional center, the capital may be deployed into a portfolio of wholly-owned businesses, so long as all capital is deployed through a single commercial enterprise and all jobs are created directly within that commercial enterprise or through the portfolio of businesses that received the EB-5 capital through that commercial enterprise. For example, in an area in which the minimum investment 1 It should be noted that when funds are held in escrow outside the United States, USCIS will review currency exchange rates at the time of adjudicating the I-526 petition to determine if it is more likely than not that the minimum qualifying capital investment will be made. At the I-829 stage, USCIS will review the evidence in the record, including currency exhange rates at the time of transfer, to determine that when the funds were actually transferred to the United States, the minimum qualifying capital investment was actually made. amount is $1,050,000, the investor can satisfy the statute if the investor invests in a commercial enterprise that deploys $600,000 of the investment toward one business that it wholly owns, and $400,000 of the investment toward another business that it wholly owns. See 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e). (In this instance, the two wholly-owned businesses would have to create an aggregate of ten new jobs between them.) An investor cannot qualify, on the other hand, by investing $600,000 in one commercial enterprise and $400,000 in a separate commercial enterprise. In the regional center context, where indirect jobs may be counted, the commercial enterprise may create jobs indirectly through multiple investments in corporate affiliates or in unrelated entities, but the investor cannot qualify by investing directly in those multiple entities. Rather, the investor’s capital must still be invested in a single commercial enterprise, which can then deploy that capital in multiple ways as long as one or more of the portfolio of businesses or projects can create the required number of jobs.a. “Targeted Employment Area” Defined The statute and regulations governing the EB-5 Program defines a “targeted employment area” as, at the time of investment, a rural area or an area that has experienced unemployment of at least 150 percent of the national average rate. A “rural area” is defined as any area not within either a metropolitan statistical area (as designated by the Office of Management and Budget) or the outer boundary of any city or town having a population of 20,000 or more (based on the most recent decennial census of the United States). 8 U.S.C. § 1153(b)(5)(B)(ii), (iii); 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e). In other words, a rural area must be both outside of a metropolitan statistical area and outside of a city or town having a population of 20,000 or more. Congress expressly provided for a reduced investment amount in a rural area or an area of high unemployment in order to spur immigrants to invest in new commercial enterprises that are principally doing business in, and creating jobs in, areas of greatest need. In order for the lower capital investment amount of $800,000 to apply, the new commercial enterprise into which the immigrant invests or the actual job creating entity must be principally doing business in the targeted employment area. For the purpose of the EB-5 Program, a new commercial enterprise is “principally doing business” in the location where it regularly, systematically, and continuously provides goods or services that support job creation. If the new commercial enterprise provides such goods or services in more than one location, it will be deemed to be “principally doing business” in the location that is most significantly related to the job creation. Factors to be considered in making this determination may include, but are not limited to, (1) the location of any jobs directly created by the new commercial enterprise; (2) the location of any expenditure of capital related to the creation of jobs; (3) where the new commercial enterprise conducts its day-to-day operation; and (4) where the new commercial enterprise maintains its assets that are utilized in the creation of jobs. Matter of Izummi, 22 I&N Dec. at 174. As discussed fully below, investments through the Immigrant Investor Program can be made through regional centers and the new commercial enterprise may seek to establish indirect job creation. In these cases, the term “principally doing business” will apply to the job-creating enterprise rather than the new commercial enterprise. See 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(6); Matter of Izummi, 22 I&N Dec. at 171-73 (discussing the location of commercial enterprises to which the new commercial enterprise made loans). The immigrant investor may seek to have a geographic or political subdivision designated as a targeted employment area. To do so, the immigrant investor must demonstrate that the targeted employment area meets the statutory and regulatory criteria through the submission of: (1) evidence that the area is outside of a metropolitan statistical area and outside of a city or town having a population of 20,000 or more; (2) unemployment data for the relevant metropolitan statistical area or county; or (3) a letter from the state government designating a geographic or political subdivision located outside a rural area but within its own boundaries as a high unemployment area. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(6). b. A State’s Designation of a Targeted Employment Area
The regulation provides that a state government may designate a geographic or political subdivision within its boundaries as a targeted employment area based on high unemployment. Before the state may make such a designation, an official of the state must notify USCIS of the agency, board, or other appropriate governmental body of the state that will be delegated the authority to certify that the geographic or political subdivision is a high unemployment area. The state may then send a letter from the authorized body of the state certifying that the geographic or political subdivision of the metropolitan statistical area or of the city or town with a population of 20,000 or more in which the enterprise is principally doing business has been designated a high unemployment area. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(i). Consistent with the regulations, USCIS defers to state determinations of the appropriate boundaries of a geographic or political subdivision that constitutes the targeted employment area. However, for all TEA designations, USCIS must still ensure compliance with the statutory requirement that the proposed area designated by the state in fact has an unemployment rate of at least 150 percent of the national average rate. For this purpose, USCIS will review state determinations of the unemployment rate and, in doing so, USCIS can assess the method or methods by which the state authority obtained the unemployment statistics. Acceptable data sources for purposes of calculating unemployment include U.S. Census Bureau data (including data from the American Community Survey) and data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (including data from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics). There is no provision that allows a state to designate a rural area.B. New Commercial Enterprise
As discussed at the beginning of this PM, the EB-5 Program eligibility requirements are based on the fact that the U.S. economy will benefit from an immigrant investor’s investment of capital into a new commercial enterprise that, as a result of the investment, creates at least ten jobs for U.S. workers. We have discussed above the requirements regarding “capital” and “investment.” We now turn to the definition of, and requirements for, a “new commercial enterprise.”1. “Commercial Enterprise” Defined
First, the regulation governing the EB-5 Program defines the term “commercial enterprise” broadly, consistent with the realities of the business world and the many different forms and types of structures that job-creating activities can have. The regulation defines a “commercial enterprise” as follows: [A]ny for-profit activity formed for the ongoing conduct of lawful business. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e).
The regulation provides a list of examples of commercial enterprises. It specifically states that the list is only of examples, and is not a complete list of the many forms a commercial enterprise can have. The examples listed are: [A] sole proprietorship, partnership (whether limited or general), holding company, joint venture, corporation, business trust, or other entity which may be publicly or privately owned. This definition includes a commercial enterprise consisting of a holding company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, provided that each such subsidiary is engaged in a for-profit activity formed for the ongoing conduct of a lawful business. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e).
Finally, the regulation provides that the commercial enterprise must be one that is designed to make a profit, unlike, for example, some charitable organizations, and it does not include “a noncommercial activity such as owning and operating a personal residence.” 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e).2. “New” Defined
In its effort to spur job creation through a wide variety of businesses and projects, the EB-5 Program has presented a broad definition of what constitutes a “new” commercial enterprise into which the immigrant investor can invest the required amount of capital and help create jobs. The EB-5 Program defines “new” as “established after November 29, 1990.” 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(e). The immigrant investor can invest the required amount of capital in a commercial enterprise that was established after November 29, 1990 to qualify for the EB-5 Program, provided the other eligibility criteria are met.
In addition, in the EB-5 Program a “new” commercial enterprise also means a commercial enterprise that was established before November 29, 1990 if the enterprise will be restructured or expanded through the immigrant investor’s investment of capital:a. The Purchase of an Existing Business That is Restructured or Reorganized
The immigrant investor can invest in an existing business, regardless of when that business was first created, provided that the existing business is simultaneously or subsequently restructured or reorganized such that a new commercial enterprise results. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(h)(2). The facts of Matter of Soffici—where an investor purchased a Howard Johnson hotel and continued to run it as a Howard Johnson hotel—were not sufficient to establish a qualifying restructuring or reorganization. 22 I&N Dec. 158, 166 (Assoc. Comm’r 1998) (“A few cosmetic changes to the decor and a new marketing strategy for success do not constitute the kind of restructuring contemplated by the regulations, nor does a simple change in ownership.”). On the other hand, examples that could qualify as restructurings or reorganizations include a plan that converts a restaurant into a nightclub, or a plan that adds substantial crop production to an existing livestock farm.b. The Expansion of an Existing Business
The immigrant investor can invest in an existing business, regardless of when that business was first created, provided that a substantial change in the net worth or number of employees results from the investment of capital. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(h)(3). “Substantial change” is defined as follows: [A] 40 percent increase either in the net worth, or in the number of employees, so that the new net worth, or number of employees amounts to at least 140 percent of the pre-expansion net worth or number of employees. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(h)(3). Investment in a new commercial enterprise in this manner does not exempt the immigrant investor from meeting the requirements relating to the amount of capital that must be invested and the number of jobs that must be created. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(h)(3).3. Pooled Investments in Non-Regional Center Cases
The EB-5 Program provides that a new commercial enterprise can be used as the basis for the petition of more than one immigrant investor. Each immigrant investor must invest the required amount of capital and each immigrant i1. “Commercial Enterprise” Definednvestor’s investment must result in the required number of jobs. Furthermore, the new commercial enterprise can have owners who are not seeking to enter the EB-5 Program, provided that the source(s) of all capital invested is (or are) identified and all invested capital has been derived by lawful means. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(g).4. Evidence of the Establishment of a New Commercial Enterprise
To show that the new commercial enterprise has been established, the immigrant investor must present the following evidence, in addition to any other evidence we deem appropriate:
- (1) as applicable, articles of incorporation, certificate of merger or consolidation, partnership agreement, certificate of limited partnership, joint venture agreement, business trust agreement, or other similar organizational document for the new commercial enterprise; or,
- (2) A certificate evidencing authority to do business in a state or municipality or, if the form of the business does not require any such certificate or the state or municipality does not issue such a certificate, a statement to that effect; or,
- (3) Evidence that, as of a date certain after November 29, 1990, the required amount of capital for the area in which an enterprise is located has been transferred to an existing business, and that the investment has resulted in a substantial increase in the net worth or number of employees of the business to which the capital was transferred. This evidence must be in the form of stock purchase agreements, investment agreements, certified financial reports, payroll records, or any similar instruments, agreements, or documents evidencing the investment in the commercial enterprise and the resulting substantial change in the net worth or number of employees. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j), (j)(1)(i)-(iii).
In order for the immigrant investor to show that he or she has committed the required amount of capital to the new commercial enterprise, the evidence presented may include, but is not limited to, the following:
- (1) Bank statement(s) showing amount(s) deposited in United States business account(s) for the enterprise;
- (2) Evidence of assets which have been purchased for use in the United States enterprise, including invoices, sales receipts, and purchase contracts containing sufficient information to identify such assets, their purchase costs, date of purchase, and purchasing entity;
- (3) Evidence of property transferred from abroad for use in the United States enterprise, including United States Customs Service commercial entry documents, bills of lading, and transit insurance policies containing ownership information and sufficient information to identify the property and to indicate the fair market value of such property;
- (4) Evidence of monies transferred or committed to be transferred to the new commercial enterprise in exchange for shares of stock (voting or nonvoting, common or preferred). Such stock may not include terms requiring the new commercial enterprise to redeem it at the holder’s request; or
- (5) Evidence of any loan or mortgage agreement, promissory note, security agreement, or other evidence of borrowing which is secured by assets of the petitioner, other than those of the new commercial enterprise, and for which the petitioner is personally and primarily liable. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(2)(i)-(v).
The EB-5 Program requires the immigrant investor to be engaged in the management of the new commercial enterprise, either through the exercise of day-to-day managerial responsibility or through policy formulation. It is not enough that the immigrant investor maintain a purely passive role in regard to his or her investment. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(5). To show that the immigrant investor is or will be engaged in the exercise of day-to-day managerial control or in the exercise of policy formulation, the immigrant investor must submit:
- (1) A statement of the position title that the immigrant investor has or will have in the new enterprise and a complete description of the position’s duties; or,
- (2) Evidence that the immigrant investor is a corporate officer or a member of the corporate board of directors; or,
- (3) If the new enterprise is a partnership, either limited or general, evidence that the immigrant investor is engaged in either direct management or policy making activities. If the petitioner is a limited partner and the limited partnership agreement provides the immigrant investor with certain rights, powers, and duties normally granted to limited partners under the Uniform Limited Partnership Act, the immigrant investor will be considered sufficiently engaged in the management of the new commercial enterprise. 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(5)(i)-(iii).
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